• Captain Willams Onovuhe Kayoda, ndc, MSS, psc, MRIN, M.Sc NDC




The resources and possibilities offered by the ocean at the service of mankind
as a huge maritime estate for exploration, exploitation, transportation amongst
others are enormous. The world populations rely greatly on the vast and
abundant resources of the sea as vital means of sustenance and livelihood. The
environment is endowed with huge deposit of living and non-living resources such
as aquatic marine resources, oil and gas and minerals amongst others. The quest
by the littoral states to derive optimum harvest and also guide against illegal
exploration and exploitation, threats and vulnerabilities informed the enactment
of legal and regulatory framework for appropriate defence and governance.
Nigeria maritime environment is rich in oil and gas, minerals and aquatic
resources which contribute as major source of revenue to the nation. Nigeria
earns over 90 percent of her foreign exchange annually from oil alone. However,
these resources are vulnerable to threats such as illegal bunkering/crude oil theft,
smuggling, poaching and piracy, amongst others. These challenges expedite the
assignment of responsibility to the Armed Forces and other maritime stakeholders
for the protection of the maritime resources.
The study was undertaken to primarily proffer an integrated approach strategy
for effective maritime resources protection to enhance economic well being of
Nigeria. It examined the capability of the Armed Forces and other stakeholders in
maritime resources protection in Nigeria. The parameters used for the assessment
include the adequacies of structures, instruments of inter-agency engagement/
cooperation and platforms for surveillance, monitoring and enforcement.
The study adopted the survey methodology in the course of the research. It established
that the Armed Forces and other supporting agencies were adequately organised to
carry out their roles. However, the key identified challenges common to all the agencies
are inadequate platforms, limited inter- agency cooperation, inadequate funding,
lack of common Maritime Domain Awareness capabilities infrastructure, lack of joint maritime security framework and limited political will. The study revealed that
there are rising threats profile, unabated illegal activities and unattended security
gaps. Therefore, the assessment of the current security capabilities approach and
delivery was adjudged low to effectively mitigate the menace.
The findings of the research generated the need to properly articulate and evolve
a holistic, robust integrated and workable approach strategy proffered for the
AFN to improve efficiency. Appropriate strategies to mitigate the identified
lapses and enhance the capacity building were proffered and recommended for
considerations to enhance the protection of Nigeria’s maritime resources.


Download data is not yet available.



Armed Forces Command and Staff College, Maritime Warfare Division, Handbook

Brown Water Operations in the Nigerian Navy, (DMN/SPS/01/Vol 1).

Clarke, B. et al.,1994, Coastal Forces, London: Brassey’s UK.

Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999.

Imobighe,P.,2010 cited in Phelps,S.,2002, Nigeria Maritime Security, the

Reality, Published by Mark Lowe Nigeria, 2010.

Macmillan Dictionary (online version), Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Microsoft Encarta 2009

NN Standing Operating Procedure Manual

Pugh,M.,1994, Maritime Security and Peacekeeping: A Framework for

United Nations Operations. New York: Manchester University Press.

The Armed Forces Act CAP A20 Part 1, Section 1, Subsection 49.


FAO cited in Jonah,G.J.,2010, Maritime Dimensions of Nigeria’s National

Security. Constructive Engagement, Journal of Alumni Association of

National Defence College Nigeria, vol 1.

Oyewo,.E.O et al.,2002, Anthropogenic Activities and their Impact on Aquatic

Resources in the Nigerian Coastal Zone cited in Mbare,N.,2009. Impact of

pollution on Aquatic Living Resources in Africa, Proceedings of the 5th Session

of Inter- Africa Committee on Oceanography Sea and Inland Fisheries.

The International Chamber of Commerce(ICC)- International Maritime Bureau (IMB) Annual Report-2008.

Wiley,J., 2008, The Role of Cognitive Skills in Economic Development

Literature, Journal of Economic Literature.

Unpublished Materials

Admiral Goshkov, quoted in Ibrahim,O.S., 2011. The Nigerian Navy:

Challenges and Future Perspectives, Lecture delivered to Participant National

Defence College Course 19.

Adenote,S.,2002, Maritime Crimes and Coastal Security: Challenges for the

Nigerian Navy. Project submitted to the National War College, Nigeria.

Akpobolokemi, Z.P., 2011, National Maritime Security Challenges and

Responses. A paper delivered at the occasion of the Maritime Reporters

Congress Annual Conference, Uyo, Nigeria.

Ayoola,O.,2010, Deep Sea Oil Exploration: Security Implication to Nigeria,

Lecture delivered at the Armed Forces Command and Staff College, Jaji,


Barkindo,M.S.,2010, The Oil and Gas Industry and the Nigerian Economy,

A paper delivered at the National Institute of Strategic Studies, Kuru, Jos,


Ibrahim,O.S.,2011, Challenges to Maritime Security: Nigerian Navy Perspective.

Paper presented to the Panel Perspective Challenges to Maritime Security at the

th International Sea power Symposium, Rhodes Island, USA.

Iya,A.A.,2011, Brief on Operational Readiness of the Nigerian Air Force.

Lecture delivered to Senior Course 34 , Armed Forces Command and Staff

College, Nigeria, 12 March.

Langewieshe,W. in Ibrahim,O.S., 2005, Piracy and Maritime Crime on the

Coast of Africa: Trends and Countermeasures, A paper delivered at Sea

Power Symposium Africa , South Africa.

Ochoga,J.A.O.,2011, Brief for the Chief of Army Staff on the Activities of

OP-PULO SHIELD, Yenegoa: Nigeria on 7March.

OS Ibrahim,O.S.,2011, Challenges to Maritime Security: Nigerian Navy

Perspective, A paper delivered to the panel on Perspective Challenges to

Maritime at the 20th International Sea Power Symposium, Rhodes Island,

USA, October.

ZP Akpobolokemi,Z.P.,2011, National Maritime Security Challenges and

Responses, A paper delivered at the occasion of the Maritime Reporters

Congress Annual Conference, Uyo, Nigeria, 29 November.


Baldrige National Quality Program at the National Institute of Standard

and Technology. Available at

_Business_Nonprofit_Criteria.pdf. [Accessed 4 March 2012].

Brown, H.,1983, Thinking about national security: defense and foreign

policy in a dangerous world. As quoted in Watson, Cynthia Ann.,2008. U.S.

national security: a reference handbook. Contemporary world issues (2

(revised) ed.).ABC-CLIO.p. 281. ISBN 978-1-59884-041-4. http://books. [ Accessed 24 March 2012]

Nimasa. Available at [Accessed 25 May 2012]

Solarin,B.B.,2012, Head of Department, Fishery Resources Department,

Nigerian Institute of Oceanography and Marine Research, Records of Reports

– Operations Room Manual 16 April, p.3.


Ojeyemi,O.,2012. Director of Operations, PICOMMS. Unstructured

Interview granted Researcher 17 April.

Adewusi,A.B.,2012, Operations Manager, Container Terminal , Nigerian

Ports Authority, Apapa, Lagos, Nigeria, Interview granted Researcher on 16


Interview with Obadina.S.O, on 16 April 2012 at NNS DELTA, Warri,


Solarin,B.,2012. Director Fishery Department, Nigerian Institute for

Oceanography and Marine Research, Lagos, Nigeria, Interview granted

Researcher on 16 April.



How to Cite

Captain Willams Onovuhe Kayoda, ndc, MSS, psc, MRIN, M.Sc. (2013). NIGERIA’S MARITIME RESOURCES PROTECTION: INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR THE ARMED FORCES. NDC E-JOURNAL, 12(1), 143-160. Retrieved from

Most read articles by the same author(s)