• Captain Andrew Adebowale Dacosta, ndc NDC




The much expected peace, stability and development after the Cold War
remain elusive. While it was hoped to be an era of promise and developing
partnerships it became an era of irregular and increasingly intermittent conflict in
which Africa is not an exception. However, the tremendous potential of the Gulf of
Guinea is creating investment opportunities for the region. Some of its resources,
such as oil, minerals and forests, continue to attract significant investments
whereas others like natural gas could be exploited to their full potential if the
necessary investments were undertaken. Nevertheless, the Gulf of Guinea has to
cope with numerous challenges, both exogenous and endogenous, before it can
fully benefit from its riches. One of these problems stems from the overwhelmingly
weak institutions and governance, pointed by stylized facts, which add to the risks
of "natural resource curse" and can feed the theory of the Paradox of Plenty. The
lacunae created by the neglect of the maritime domain allowed the US and other
foreign powers to foray in the region to exploit its resources. The case is made that
regional institutional arrangements and increased involvement of the international
community and other stakeholders should complement the efforts in which
countries in the region should engage to address policy and governance issues.
Complementary avenues are proposed, including maintaining stability and
security, putting in place credible maritime guard force and making better use of
the region's own assets.


Download data is not yet available.



R,A, Akindele and Bassey, E Ate, Beyond Conflict Resolution: Managing

Africa Security in the 21st Century, (The African Security Project, NIIA

Security Study Series) Vantage Publishers, Ibadan, 2001.

Ricardo Soares De Oliveria, Oil and Politics in the Gulf of Guinea, Hurst and

Company (www.hurst pub.co.uk) 2007.

Ricardo Soares De Oliveria, Oil and Politics in the Gulf of Guinea, Hurst and

Company (www.hurst pub.co.uk) 2007.

Nicholas Shaxson, Poisoned Wells, The Dirty Politics of African Oil, Palgrave

Macmillan, 2007.

Manuel Correa de Barros , Oil Policy in the Gulf of Guinea: Can the Gulf of

Guinea Develop A Common Regional Oil Policy? Online.

James J.F. and Mathew V. Sousa, Oil and Terrorism in the New Gulf, Lexington

Books, a division of Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc, 2007.

The Military Balance 2007, Publisher Routledge, Taylor and Francis, 2007.

Celestine Oyom Bassey, Contemporary Strategy and the African Condition,

Macmillan Nigeria Publishers Limited, 2005.

Unpublished Materials

Oyagha A.I, An Appraisal of the Security Implications for the Nigerian Armed

Forces on the Joint Development Zone Treaty between Nigeria and Sao Tome

and Principe, being a long essay submitted to the Faculty of Law, Ahmadu

Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Real, B, Understanding AFRICOM: A Contextual Reading of Empire's New

Combatant Command, 2007.

Tukur H,A, Security Framework for the Gulf of Guinea, Workshop on Nigeria's

Security Interest in Africa, 2008.

Hassan A, Saliu, Nigerian Response to the US AFRICOM Project, a paper

presented at a Workshop on Nigeria's Security Interest in Africa, 2008.

Lt Col M Mohammad, African Oil and US Strategic Interest in the Gulf of

Guinea: Implications for Nigeria, AFCSC News, Jaji, 2006.

Official Publications

Robert G. Berschinski "AFRICOM's Dilemma: The Global War on Terrorism,"

Capacity Building," Humanitarianism and the Future of US Security Policy in

Africa, a work of the US Government as defined in Title 17, United States

Code 101, Nov 2007.

David L, Goldwyn and Stephen J, Morrison, A Strategic US Approach to

Governance and Security in the Gulf of Guinea, a Report of the CSIS Task

Force on Gulf of Guinea Security, 2005.

A DHQ Committee Report on the Modalities for the Establishment of a Gulf of

Guinea Guard Force, 2006.

A Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Africa Department, Report on the Gulf of Guinea

and the Challenges Ahead, 2008.

A Ministry of Foreign Affairs Report of the Inter-Ministerial Committee on

US-Africa Strategic Partnership, 2007.

The Treaty between the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the Democratic

Republic of Sao Tome e Principe on the Joint Development of Petroleum and

other Resources, in respect of Areas of the Exclusive Economic Zone of the

two states.

Journals/ Magazines

Robert Rotberg, China's Mixed Role in Africa Op-Ed, The Boston Globe, 23

June 2007.

The EU and the Member States: The African Capabilities Building Programme

- www.strategie.gouv.frcentred'analysestrategique

Wikipedia, Free Encyclopedia, Gulf of Guinea.

The Business News, The Sao Tome Oil Deals: Nigeria's big players in JDZ,

JDZ News, Milestone to History, JDZ Exploration Activity Begins, 2005.


About AFRICOM, www.africom.mil.

China' African Propaganda Offensive, www.ecfr.eu.

ECIPE Policy Brief No 3/2008, EU-China Trade Dialogue, www.ecipe.org.

TransAfrica Forum, www.tranafricaforum.org/tafstaff.

Resist AFRICOM, www.salsa.democracyinaction.org, and




How to Cite

Captain Andrew Adebowale Dacosta, ndc. (2009). EXTERNAL FORCE PROJECTION IN THE GULF OF GUINEA AS A THREAT TO REGIONAL SECURITY: ROLE OF THE NIGERIAN MILITARY. NDC E-JOURNAL, 8(1), 87-106. Retrieved from https://ndcjournal.ndc.gov.bd/ndcj/index.php/ndcj/article/view/68