ENERGY SECURITY AND GEOPOLITICS: BANGLADESH PERSPECTIVE
Keywords:Sovereignty, Resilience and Robustness of VES, Energy-Geopolitics, Energy-politics, Energy Actors, Strategy of Bandwagoning, Balancing and Rebalancing, Multi-collaboration
Energy and geopolitics are intertwined where the Energy Security is a complex notion. In addition to the perspective of 4As (affordability, accessibility, acceptability and availability), Energy Security is currently also evaluated through the viewpoints of Sovereignty, Resilience and Robustness of the system where geopolitics is inherently related. Therefore, the research aims to critically comprehend the correlation of Energy Security and Geopolitics from Bangladesh Perspective with a view to outlining an apt geopolitical approach towards the enhancement of Energy Security. The critical analyses on ‘energy scenario’ (including outlook-2041), ‘energy-geopolitics’ and ‘energy-politics’ from global and regional perspectives yield the appropriate geopolitical approach for Bangladesh. The ‘Tunnel and Vulnerability Model of Vital Energy System’ (VES) has been developed in order to determine geopolitical risks and vulnerabilities therein. The ‘Energy System Analysis’ reveals three types of Energy Actors Bangladesh has, i.e., Source, Supplier and Infrastructure, and their ability to influence geopolitically. In the domain of geopolitics, the Belt Road Initiative (BRI), Quad led Indo Pacific Strategy (IPS), volatile Middle-East, Regional Opportunities and Realities, Asia Centric Global Geopolitics etc. made a tightrope walk situation for Bangladesh. In this context, Bangladesh should avoid the strategy of ‘Bandwagoning’, rather follow the strategy of ‘Balancing and Rebalancing’ and ‘Multi-collaboration’. An apt geopolitical approach based on the Pillar of ‘Resources’, ‘Energy Actors’ and ‘Geopolitics’ would enhance the Energy Security of Bangladesh. Formulation of National Security Policy/Strategy is sine qua non where energy should be securitised at the earliest and integrated within the National Security Paradigm.
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