• Lieutenant Colonel Muhammad Sanaullah, psc, Engineers Research and Development Wing, MIST, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Assistant Professor Dr M. Akhtaruzzaman Department of Computer Science and Engineering, MIST, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Lieutenant Colonel Md Altab Hossain, PhD, EME Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, MIST, Dhaka, Bangladesh


Land robots, Military robots, Defense robots, Military defense engineering, Ground robots, UGV


To face the challenges of military defense, modernizing army and their tactical tools is a continuous process. In near future various kinds of missions will be executed by military robots to achieve 100% impact and 0% life risks. Defense robot engineers and companies are interested to automate various strategies for higher efficiency and greater impact as the demand of land defense robots is growing steadily. In this study, land-robots used in military defense system are focused and various types of land-robots are presented focusing on the technical specifications, control strategies, battle engagement, and purpose of use. Recent integration of land-robot technologies in the world military forces, its necessities, and contributions of various international defense companies to the world economy are also presented in this study indicating supremacy in the military automation and economic stability. Limitations and challenges of recent development, robot ethics, and moral impacts are also discussed here with some vital points related to robot security and some suggestions to overcome recent challenges for the future development.


Download data is not yet available.


Abaimov S., & Martellini M. (2020). Artificial Intelligence in Autonomous Weapon Systems. In: Martellini M., Trapp R. (eds.) 21st Century Prometheus. Springer, Cham.

Abiodun, T. F., and Taofeek, C. R. (2020). Unending War on Boko Haram Terror in Northeast Nigeria and the Need for Deployment of Military Robots or Autonomous Weapons Systems to Complement Military Operations. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research, Social and Management Sciences, 6(6), 1-17, DOI: 10.46654/ij.24889849

Ahmed, Z. E., Hasan, M. K., Saeed, R. A., Hassan, R., Islam, S., Mokhtar, R. A., Khan, S, & Akhtaruzzaman, M. (2020). Optimizing Energy Consumption for Cloud Internet of Things. Front. Phys. 8:358. doi: 10.3389/fphy.2020.00358

AirCore TAF35. (2020). Firefighting robot – for increased safety in extinguishing fires, EmiControls Datasheet. [Online] Available at: (Accessed on 22nd December 2020).

Akhtaruzzaman, M., Bari, S. M. S., Hossain, S. A., & Rahman, M. M. (2020), Link Budget Analysis in Designing a Web-application Tool for Military X-Band Satellite Communication, MIST International Journal of Science and Technology (MIJST), 8(1), 17-33.

Akhtaruzzaman, M., Samsuddin, N. I. Bt., Umar, N. Bt., & Rahman, M. (2009). Design and development of a wall climbing Robot and its control system, 12th International Conference on Computers and Information Technology, Dhaka, pp. 309-313, doi: 10.1109/ICCIT.2009.5407120.

Akhtaruzzaman, M., Shafie, A. A., & Khan, M. R. (2017). Quasi-inverse pendulum model of 12 DoF bipedal walking. Int. J. Autom. Comput. 14, 179–190.

Akhtaruzzaman, M., & Shafie, A. A. (2011). Joint behaviors of a humanoid platform while overcoming an obstacle. Advances in Applied Science Research, Pelagia Research Library, 2(6), 299-311.

Akhtaruzzaman, M., & Shafie, A. A. (2010a), Advancement of Android and Contribution of Various Countries in the Research and Development of the Humanoid Platform, International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), CSC Journal, Malaysia, 1(2), 43-57

Akhtaruzzaman, M., & Shafie, A. A. (2010b), Evolution of Humanoid Robot and Contribution of Various Countries in Advancing the Research and Development of the Platform, International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems, Oct. 27-30, KINTEX, Gyeonggi-do, Korea, 1021-1028

AlHaza, T., Alsadoon, A., Alhusinan, Z., Jarwali, M., & Alsaif, K. (2015). New Concept for Indoor Fire Fighting Robot. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Elsevier, 195(2015), 2343 – 2352.

Amoroso, D., Sauer, F., Sharkey, N., Suchman, L., & Tamburrini, G. (2018). Autonomy in Weapon Systems, The Military Application of Artificial Intelligence as a Litmus Test for Germany’s New Foreign and Security Policy. Heinich-Böll-Stiftung, Publication Series on Democracy, 49, 16-46.

Antal, J. (2016). The Next Wave, Racing Toward Robotic War. 2016- Military Technology. [Online] Available at: (Accessed on 24th September 2020)

Antal, J. (2018). Bots (Not Just Boots) on the Ground, Creating Human-Robotic Hybrid Forces for Close Quarters Battle (CQB). 2018-Military Technology Magazine. ESD 3/2018 (deadline: 5 March): CQB Training (MOUT)

Army Guide (2020a). APD. [Online] Available at: (Accessed on 22nd September 2020)

Army Guide (2020b). Elbit Systems Launches Two New Robots, Creating a VIPeR Family. [Online] Available at: (Accessed on 21st September 2020)

Army Technology (2020). THeMIS Hybrid Unmanned Ground Vehicle. [Online] Available at: (Accessed on 21st September 2020).

Banerjee, N., Long, X., Du, R., Polido, F., Feng, S., Atkeson, C., Gennert, M. A., & Padir, T. (2015). Human-supervised control of the ATLAS humanoid robot for traversing doors. 2015 IEEE-RAS 15th International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids), Seoul, 722-729, doi: 10.1109/HUMANOIDS.2015.7363442.

Baker, M. (2017), Future Warfare Trends: Preferred Technological Outlook for Bangladesh Army, Bangladesh Army Journal, 61st Issue

Bhardwaj, A., Avasthi, V., & Goundar, S. (2019). Cyber security attacks on robotic platforms. Network Security, Elsevier, 2019(10), 13–19.

Breiling, B., Dieber, B., & Schartner, P. (2017). Secure communication for the robot operating system. In 2017 annual IEEE international systems conference (syscon), 24-27 April, Montreal, QC, Canada, pp. 1–6. Doi: 10.1109/SYSCON.2017.7934755

CRS Report (2018). U.S. Ground Forces Robotics and Autonomous Systems (RAS) and Artificial Intelligence (AI): Considerations for Congress. Congressional Research Service, Nov. 20, (R45392), 2-43.

DefPost (2020). U.S. Army Plans to Award S-MET Robotic Mule Contract This Month. [Online] Available at: (Accessed on 24th September 2020).

Dilipraj, E. (2016). Inevitable Warfare Technologies: Pragmatic Role of Robotics, 3D Printing and Supercomputers in Future Wars. Asian Defence Review 2016.

Dufourda, D., & Dalgalarrondo, A. (2006), Integrating human/robot interaction into robot control architectures for defense applications. First National Workshop on Control Architectures of Robots, April 6, 7 2006, Montpellier

Fleurant, A., Perlo-freeman, S., Wezeman, P. D., Wezeman, S. T., & Kelly, N. (2016). The SIPRI Top 100 Arms-Producing and Military Services Companies, 2015. SIPRI Fact Sheet, December 2016. [Online] Available at: (Accessed on 2nd February 2021).

Fleurant, A., Kuimova, A., Tian, N., Wezeman, P. D., & Wezeman, S. T. (2017). The SIPRI Top 100 Arms-Producing and Military Services Companies, 2016. SIPRI Fact Sheet, December 2017. [Online] Available at: (Accessed on 2nd February 2021).

Fleurant, A., Kuimova, A., Silva, D. L. D., Tian, N., Wezeman, P. D. & Wezeman, S. T. (2019). The SIPRI Top 100 Arms‑producing and Military Services Companies, 2018. SIPRI Fact Sheet, December 2019. [Online] Available at: (Accessed on 10th December 2020).

Fregan, B., & Rajnai, Z. (2019). Western European example of defense development. Műszaki Tudományos Közlemények, 11(2019), 55–58

Gartzke, E. (2019). Blood and robots: How remotely piloted vehicles and related technologies affect the politics of violence. Journal of Strategic Studies. Taylor & Francis. DOI: 10.1080/01402390.2019.1643329

Hemapala, K. T. M. U. & Razzoli, R. P. (2012). Design and Development of a Landmines Removal Robot, International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, 9(5), DOI: 10.5772/50907

Hoque, M. Z. (2017), Mechanized Infantry – A Future Arm of Bangladesh Army, Bangladesh Army Journal, 61st Issue

Horowitz, M. C. (2019). When speed kills: Lethal autonomous weapon systems, deterrence and stability. Journal of Strategic Studies, Taylor & Francis. 42:6, 764-788, DOI: 10.1080/01402390.2019.1621174

Hossain, M., Rashid, M. M., Bhuiyan, M. M. I., Ahmed, S., & Akhtaruzzaman, M. (2013). A Qualitative Approach to Mobile Robot Navigation Using RFID, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 53.

Hua, Z., Rong, X., Li, Y., Chai, H., Li, B., & Zhang, S. (2020). Analysis and Verification on Energy Consumption of the Quadruped Robot with Passive Compliant Hydraulic Servo Actuator. Appl. Sci., 10, 340.

ICRC (2014). Autonomous Weapon Systems, Technical, Military, Legal and Humanitarian Aspects. Expert Meeting, Geneva, Switzerland, 26 to 28 March, 5-94.

Karabegović, I., & Karabegović, E. (2019), The Role of Collaborative Service Robots in the Implementation of Industry 4.0, International Journal of Robotics and Automation Technology, 6, 40-46

Kaushal, H., & Kaddoum, G. (2017). Applications of Lasers for Tactical Military Operations. IEEE Access, 5: 20736-20753. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2755678

Khalid, A., Kirisci, P., Khan, Z. H., Ghrairi, Z., Thoben, K.-D., & Pannek, J. (2018). Security framework for industrial collaborative robotic cyber-physical systems. Computers in Industry, Elsevier, 97, 132–145. Doi: 10.1016/j.compind.2018.02.009

Kim, J. H., & Lattimer, B. Y. (2015). Real-time probabilistic classification of fire and smoke using thermal imagery for intelligent firefighting robot. Fire Safety Journal. Elsevier, 72(2015), 40–49.

Kozyulin, V. (2019). Militarization of AI. Discussion Paper: A Russian Perspective. Nuclear Weapons, 1-9. [Online] Available at: (Accessed on 25th December 2020).

Layton, P. (2018). Robot Wars: UGVs on the Battlefield. Defence Today, September-2018, 13-17.

Liu, P., Yu, H., Cang, S., & Vladareanu, L. (2016). Robot-Assisted Smart Firefighting and Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Automation & Computing, University of Essex, Colchester, UK, 7-8 September.

Macias, A., & Rattner, N. (2020). Global arms trade is a nearly 200 billion business and the US drives nearly 80% of it. CNBC. [Online] Available at: (Accessed on 10th December 2020).

Mizokami, K. (2019). The Ripsaw M5 Could Become the Army’s First Robo-Tank, The M5 was developed from a tank featured in a reality TV show. Popular Mechanics. [Online] Available at: (Accessed on 24th September 2020).

Nuţă, I., Orban, O., & Grigorec, L. (2015). Development and Improvement of Technology in Emergency Response. Procedia Economics and Finance, 32(2015), 603-609.

Raibert, M., Blankespoor, K., Nelson, G., & Playter, R. (2008). BigDog, the Rough-Terrain Quadruped Robot. Proceedings of the 17th World Congress, The International Federation of Automatic Control, Seoul, Korea, 6-11 July.

RDECOM. (2010). U.S. Army RDECOM – TARDEC, Autonomous Platform Demonstrator. Army Science Conference, 29 Nov. – 03 Dec. 2010.

Reddy, A. H., Kalyan, B., & Murthy, C. H. N. (2015). Mine Rescue Robot System – A Review. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, Elsevier B. V., 11(2015), 457-462.

Sapaty, P. S. (2015). Military Robotics: Latest Trends and Spatial Grasp Solutions. International Journal of Advanced Research in Artificial Intelligence, 4(4), 9-18.

Sathiyanarayanan, M., Azharuddin, S., Kumar, S., Khan, G. (2014). Self-Controlled Robot for Military Purpose. International Journal for Technological Research in Engineering, 1(10), 1075-1077

Shyvakov, O. (2017). Developing a security framework for robots, Master Thesis, Faculty for Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, University of Twente.

Smolarek, M. (2019). Germany. In: Romanovs, U., & Andžāns, M. (eds.) Digital Infantry Battlefield Solution, Research and Innovation, DIBS project, Part III. Milrem Robotics, pp. 61-68

Talukder, C. M. A. (2016), How to Fight the Next War in 21st Century: A Dilemma for Standing Military Forces, NDC Journal, Bangladesh, 15(2), 225-236

Tan, C. F., Liew, S. M., Alkahari, M. R., Ranjit, S. S. S., Said, M. R., Chen, W., Rauterberg, G. W. M., & Sivakumar, D. (2013). Firefighting mobile robot: state of the art and recent development. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 7(10), 220-230.

Tang, D. (2020). China boosts forces with robot weapons. The Sunday Times. UK. [Online] Available at: (Accessed on 12th December 2020).

Umbrello, S., Torres, P., & De Bellis, A. F. (2020). The future of war: could lethal autonomous weapons make conflict more ethical? AI & SOCIETY, Springer, 35(1), 273–282. Doi: 10.1007/s00146-019-00879-x

Wezeman, P. D., Fleurant, A., kkuimova, A., Silva, D. L. D., Tian, N., & Wezeman, S. T. (2020). Trends in International Arms Transfers, 2019. [Online] Available at: (Accessed on 2nd February 2021).

Wright, C., Buchan, A., Brown, B., Geist, J., & Schwerin, M. (2012). Design and Architecture of the Unified Modular Snake Robot. 2012 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Saint Paul, MN, pp. 4347-4354, doi: 10.1109/ICRA.2012.6225255.

Yaacoub, J. P., Noura, H., Salman, O., & Chehab, A. (2020). Security analysis of drones systems: Attacks, limitations, and recommendations. Internet of Things, 11, 100218. Doi: 10.1016/j.iot.2020.100218

Zysk, K. (2020). Defence innovation and the 4th industrial revolution in Russia. Journal of Strategic Studies, Taylor & Francis. DOI: 10.1080/01402390.2020.1856090



How to Cite

Sanaullah, M., Akhtaruzzaman, M., & Hossain, M. A. (2022). LAND-ROBOT TECHNOLOGIES: THE INTEGRATION OF COGNITIVE SYSTEMS IN MILITARY AND DEFENSE. NDC E-JOURNAL, 2(1), 123-156. Retrieved from




Most read articles by the same author(s)