• Lieutenant Colonel Md Aftab Hossain, afwc, psc, Infantry NDC




Bangladesh has participated in all major UN Peacekeeping Operations (UNPKOs) for last 26 years since 1988 and emerged as top Troops Contributing Country (TCC). It signifies her willingness and credibility for the peace and security of the world. Ithas been highly appreciated by the word bodies and created very positive image which in turned haslaid foundationof better bilateral relations including economic ties. Participation in peacekeeping is facilitating modernization of Armed Forces including contributing to the economic growth of the country with huge reimbursement. Therefore, it is necessary to keep the tempo to uphold the good reputationincluding exploration of new opportunities. However, the modern peacekeepinghas drastically changed from “traditional” to a “multidimensional” approachincluding robust peacekeeping due to changing pattern of conflict. Modern peacekeeping is facing multidimensional challenges in implementing the mission mandate. Besides, budget reduction, influence of regional arrangement and growing interest of new TCCs to participate in peacekeeping is making it difficult for Bangladesh tomaintain her current position. Therefore, peacekeeping is becoming challenging for Bangladesh that necessitate appropriate preparation.

In an attempt to identify challenges of UNPKOs, this paper has discussed the trends and characteristics of modern UNPKOs with facts and statistics, and analysed several challenges that current and future UN peacekeeping forces may encounter. It also examined the present preparedness of Bangladesh to meet those challenges, and suggested ways how Bangladesh should respond to the challenges ahead. This paper also identified that Bangladesh has not been able to utilize the positive images in exploring new opportunities while transitions took place at later stage frompeacekeeping to peacebuilding. Itsupports capacity building of the host countrywhere Bangladesh has huge potentialities to support the peace process. A list of recommendations has also been put forward that may be implementedto sustain the competition to participate in UNPKOs. A harmonized and prudent work plan at the national level utilizing the positive images in peacekeeping is required to increase Bangladesh’s contribution in UNPKOs.


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Books / Monographs

Annual Review of Global Peace Operations 2013, ‘Global Statistics on UN Missions’, Center of International Cooperation, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder, London.

Jenkins, Robert 2012, Peacebuilding from Concept to Commission, Routledge.

Holt, Victoria and Taylor, Glyn 2009, Protecting Civilians in the Context of UN PKOs-Success, Setbacks and the remaining Challenges’, published by UNDPKO, New York, USA.

Zaman, Rashed and Niloy Ranjan 2012,‘Bangladesh’, edited by Alex J. Bellamy and Paul D. William in ‘Providing Peacekeepers’ The Politics, Challenges, and Future of UN Peacekeeping Contribution’, published by Oxford University Press, USA.

UN Publication/ UN Document/ Reports

UN DPKO and DFS 2008, ‘United Nations Peacekeeping Operations Principles and Guidelines’. 2. UN DPKO and DFS 2010, Informal paper ‘Peacekeeping and Peace building: Clarifying the Nexus’.

UN DPKO and DFS 2010, ‘The New Horizon Initiative: Progress Report No.1’.

UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali’s Report 1992, to the Security Council on 17 June 1992, commonly known as ‘An Agenda for Peace’.

UN DPKO and DFS 2012, ‘United Nations Infantry Battalion Manual Volume – 1 and Volume – 2’.

UN ‘Security Council Resolution (2086)’ 2013. Adopted by the Security Council at its 6903rd meeting, on 21 January 2013.

UN DPKO and DFS 2010, ‘A New Partnership Agenda - Charting a New Horizon for UN Peacekeeping’.

UN DPKO and DFS 2009, ‘ The New Horizon Initiative: Progress Report No.1’.

UN DPKO 2008, ‘United Nations Standby Arrangement System’ policy.

UN Peacekeeping 2014, ‘Background Note’.

Articles / Journals/ Seminar Paper

Ali, T A Zearat 1998, ‘Bangladesh in UN Peacekeeping Operations’, ‘Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies’, Number 16, July 1998.

Emel, Mr Osmançavuşoğlu 2000, ‘Challenges to UN Peacekeeping Operations in the Post-cold War era’, Journal of International Affairs, Volume IV, No 4.

Haq, Md Ramjul 1976, ‘The UN Emergency Force: An Innovation and Innovative in International Peacekeeping’, The Dhaka University Studies, Part A, Volume XXIV.

Rasul, Brigadier General Ilyas Iftekhar, ndc, psc (retired) 2010, ‘Look Africa: An Emerging Foreign Policy Option for Bangladesh’, the National Seminar, on 2 December 2010 at Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies (BIISS) Auditorium.

Kabir Mahfuz and Hassain Sharif M 2010 ‘Why ‘look Africa’? And analyses of economic potential for Bangladesh’ by, Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies, Volume 31, Number 3.

International Peace Institution, Website, Zaman, Rashed and Niloy Ranjan 2013, ‘Contributor Profile:Bangladesh’,<>,(accessed on 1 March 2014).

Research Papers / Study Papers

Bhuiyan, Brigadier General Md Anisuzzaman, ndc, psc 2013,‘Effective Peacekeeping to Peace building: Challenges and Opportunities for Bangladesh’, an M Phil Paper, NDC.

Rasul, Brigadier General Illyas, ndc, psc (retired) 2011,‘United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: Trends and Challenges’ a dissertation paper of National Defence College for M Phil (Special).

Haque, Lieutenant Colonel Md Ziaul, psc has conducted research on 2013, ‘A Paradigm Shift from Peacekeeping to Peacebuilding - Way Forward for Bangladesh’ an Individual Research Paper for Armed Forces War Course 2013, NDC, Dhaka.

Gaye, Lieutenant-General Babacar, (retired) (now SRGS for MINUSCA, CAR) 2012, Presentation Script for Security Council Retreat on 4 April 20012 (not published).


Bari, Enamul, Air Marshal, ndu, psc, Chief Air Staff, BAF presentation on ‘Challenges vis-à-vis Future Expansion’, on 23 March 2014, NDC, Dhaka.

Khan, Brigadier General Saleem Ahamd, afwc, psc, te, deliberation on ‘Role of UN under Present Security Environment of the Word - Involvement of Bangladesh as the Key Actor in UNKPO’, on 01 June 2014, NDC, Dhaka.

Habib, Muhammad Farid, (ND), Vice Admiral, ndc, psc, presentation on ‘BN and its Challenges’, 07 March 2014, NDC, Dhaka.


Bhuiyan, Brigadier General Md Anisuzzaman, ndc, psc interviewed by author on 10 August 2014.

Haq, Lieutenant General Abu Belal Muhammad Shafiul, ndc, psc, Principal Staff Officer, AFD, interview by author on 4 September 2014.

Hossain, Lieutenant General Anwar, ndc, psc, Quartermaster General, AHQ, interview by author, 2 July 2014.

Islam, Lieutenant General M Moinul, awc, psc, Chief of General Staff, AHQ, Bangladesh Army, interviewed by author, 0n 31 August 2014.

Web Sites

UNGA Thematic Debate: ‘UN Peacekeeping - Looking into the Future’ New York, on 22 June 2010, <>, (accessed on 4 Aril 2014).

Peacekeeping Statistics Website, < /statistics/contributors .shtml>, (accessed on different dates from March 2014 to October 2014).

UN Peacekeeping Website, Archive,< /early.shtml>, (accessed on different dates from March 2014 to October 2014.



How to Cite

Lieutenant Colonel Md Aftab Hossain, afwc, psc, Infantry. (2015). MODERN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS: IMPLICATIONS ON PREPAREDNESS OF BANGLADESH ARMED FORCES . NDC E-JOURNAL, 14(1), 10: 1-22. Retrieved from

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