MIGRATION: A THREAT TO HUMAN SECURITY, MALAYSIA
Keywords:MIGRATION, HUMAN SECURITY, MALAYSIA
Migration involve in human since time immemorial existence. The International Organization for Migration (IOM), deﬁnes ‘Migration’ as a movement of a person or persons or group of persons, either across an international border, or within a State. It could be for economy (like commercial, environmental, developmental), demography (like family uniﬁcation, changes in young workforce and ageing population) or political (like conﬂict, minority persecution) reasons. This study will only cover migration in relation to soft security i.e. human security pertaining to politics, economy and society. The simplest deﬁnition of security is “absence of insecurity and threats”. Migration in Malaysia was clearly observed since the colonial era whereby the Chinese and the Indian were brought to work in tin mines and rubber plantations respectively. When Malaysia diversiﬁed from agriculture towards manufacturing industry in the 1980s, workers from the agriculture industry moved together with the main stream towards manufacturing and thus, created a shortage or vacuum of workers in agriculture. As the economy became vibrant, the requirement for workers became more demanding and hence, the importation of foreign workers to ﬁll the gap and the creation of migration of present time. Migration could occur due to circumstances or factors that force people to leave home country (Push Factors) and also circumstances or factors that attract or lure people to host country (Pull). There are many reasons why migrant workers chose Malaysia as their destination looking for jobs. Some of the reasons could be geographical location, historical importance, economy and lack of effective border control. Migrants into Malaysia could be categorised as legal (documented) or illegal (undocumented). The legal migrant is the one that has proper documentation and the other is the opposite. Although, the country needs foreign workers to enhance the capacity for development of infrastructure and industrialization, it also invites the activities of migrants which pose threat to human security. In Malaysia, the existence of migrants could pose threat from several perspectives namely political perspective, when their existence was manipulated by political parties of being involved in the country political scenario; economic perspective, when migrants remit money which offset the country’s Balance of Payment, involve in business competing with the locals; and social perspective, when migrants are involved in crimes which cause fear to locals. Existences of migrant workers, even though perceived to bring some threats to the citizens of the country, are crucial to the country to sustain economic progression. The migrant workers good contribution to the country outweigh the ﬂipside of their existence, hence, the country must take charge to channel their existence towards its intents and purposes.
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