TRENDS IN OVERSEAS MIGRATION AND ITS SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACTS: BANGLADESH PERSPECTIVE
Keywords:OVERSEAS MIGRATION, BANGLADESH PERSPECTIVE
Overseas workers’ remittance is considered as one of the key drivers of our emerging economy and getting a larger space in the socio-economic developments of Bangladesh. Manpower export started in 1976 and large scale labour migration gained its momentum in early 1990s. It turned into an important effective tool for poverty alleviation and reduces the pressure of unemployment at domestic sectors. This paper examines the trends in the Bangladeshi workers migration and the impacts of remittance inﬂow primarily on the social and economic developments. Majority of the migrant workers’ are unskilled and less educated who work in the countries of Middle East and South East Asia. Female workers migration is negligible in percent compared to male migrants due to the government policy guidelines, but now it is in increasing trend. Remittances contributed tremendously in improving the social and economic indicators like living condition and housing, education, health care, nutrition, social security, poverty reduction and economic activities in the rural area. Bangladesh is now in the top 10 remittance receiving countries among the 48 LDCs. It is expected that if remittance contributes in maintaining a satisfactory steady economic growth of 8 percent for increasing the per capita GDP that may help Bangladesh in transforming into a middle-income country by the next decade.
Bailey, Rayna 2010, Immigration and migration, Infobase Publishing, New York.
International Labour Ofﬁce 2011, International labour migration:A rightsbased approach, Academic Foundation, New Delhi, India.
Moniruzzaman, Mohammad 2009, The economics of migrants’ remittances in Bangladesh, Muktachinta Prokashona, Dhaka.
Siddiqui, Tasneem 2005, Migration and development:Pro-poor policy choices,The University Press Limited, Dhaka.
Zamir, Zahid 2006, Migrant workers’ contribution in Malaysian economy, Cosmic Publishers, Dhaka.
Bangladesh Economic Review 2011.
BMET 2012, ‘Skill training of bmet’, October 2012.
Siddiqui, T and Billah Md Motasim 2012, ‘Labour migration from bangladesh 2011: achievements and challenges’ RMMRU, January 2012.
The Daily Star 21 October 2012; January 2,7,22 and 30, 2013; February 1 and 9, 2013; March 30, 2013; May 13 and 17; August 14, 2013.
The Daily Prothom Alo, 14 April 2013.
The Daily Jugantor, 26 May 2013.
Uddin, M Bashir 2009, ‘Human trafﬁcking and human security: a gender perspective’, Biiss journal, vol.30,No.4, October. pp 423-448.
World Bank and Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies 1999, ‘Bangladesh 2020: a long run perspective study’, The University Press Limited, Dhaka.
Ahmed, Syed Maruf 2012, Migration Remittances and Household Development, Land University. (Accessed on 22 February).
Barai, Munim K 2012, ‘Development Dynamics of Remittance in Bangladesh’ SAGE Open, <http://sgo.sagepub.com/content/2/1/2158244012439073> (Accessed 22 February).
Farid,KS et al, 2009, ‘Trends in international migration and remittance ﬂows: case of bangldesh’ February..>vol 7, No 2 (2009)> (Accessed 30 January 2013).
Islam Md Nurul 2011, ‘Bangladeshi workers and their contribution to national development’ 2011. < www.bmet.org.bd/BMET/.../remittance and its impacts > (Accessed 5 January 2013).
Migrant Forum Asia ‘Cedaw and the female labour migrants of bangaladesh’ available at (Accessed on 22 February 2013).
Survey report by Islam Md Nurul, BMET ‘Study on women migrants’ situation’, available at < www.infokosh.bangladesh.gov.bd/ﬁles/5969.pdf >, 2011. (Accessed on 19 March 2-13).
Institute of Governance Studies, BRAC University, ‘The State of Governance in Bangladesh in 2009: entitlement, responsiveness and sustainability’, November 2010.
Lecture delivered at NDC-2013 by Mr Sarat Das, Chief of Mission, IOM Dhaka, on ‘Dynamics of regular and irregular migration from Bangladesh’, 31 March 2013.
Probashi Kollyan Bank, Eskaton, Dhaka.
Annual Bangladesh Balance of Payments 2011-12, Statistic Department, Bangladesh Bank.