WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN BANGLADESH: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
Over the last years, Bangladesh has been trying to improve the backwardness regarding women issues as well as to achieve considerable progress in socio-cultural and economic sectors for women. In spite of these achievements, a large portion of women in this country have yet to be empowered to participate actively in the social, cultural, economic, and political sectors. The Constitution of Bangladesh guarantees equal rights to all citizens; but family matters such as marriage, divorce, custody, maintenance, inheritance, discriminative laws against women etc. are not monitored as expected. In Bangladesh the socio-cultural and religious constitution imposes a number of constraints on women, hampering their access to various resources and services. The life of a woman is dominated by a patriarchal and patrilineal social customary system. More frequently, such a system upholds a rigid division of labour that controls the mobility, roles and responsibility and sexuality of women. In order to bring the women in the mainstream of the society cultural awareness, reform in education sector, improving health sector, more access to resources and services are to be addressed. Implementing the legal rights of women, execution of gender sensitive budget and women development policy certainly would empower women in Bangladesh.
Ahmed, Naseem, 2003, Women in Islam, volume 1, A.P.H. Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, India.
Azim, Firdous and Sultan, Maheen 2010, ‘ Mapping Women’s Empowerment: Experiences from Bangladesh’, India and Pakistan, BRAC Development Institute, The University Press Limited, Dhaka.
Begum, F. S. 2007, Women entrepreneurship development programme: Implementation plan, Bangladesh Small and Cottage Industry Corporation, Dhaka.
Batliwala, Srilatha, 1994. “The meaning of Women’s Empowerment: New Concepts from Action.” Pp. 127-138 in Population Policies Reconsidered: Health, Empowerment and Rights. G. Sen, A. Germain, and L.C. Chen, eds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bellah, R, Madsen, R, Sullivan, W, Swidler, A, & Tipton, S. 1985. ‘Habits of the Heart’. New York: Harper and Row.
Bose, Ashish, et al 2004, ‘Women’s empowerment through capacity building: enduring efforts in Bangladesh’, Gonoprokashani, Dhaka.
Bisnath, Savitri and Diane Elson. 1999. ‘Women’s Empowerment Revisited’. Background paper, Progress of the World’s Women. UNIFEM. Available on- line at www.unifem.undp.org/progressww/empower.html.
Chambers, Robert. 1997. ‘Whose Reality Counts? Putting the First Last’. London: ITDG Publishing.
Dunst, C, Trivette, C. M. & Deal, A.G. (1988). ‘Enabling and empowering families:
Principles and guidelines for practice’. Cambridge, Mass: Brookline Books.
Friedmann, John, 1992. Empowerment: ‘The Politics of Alternative Development’. Cambridge, Mass, Blackwell Publishers.
Glouberman, D, 1989, ‘Life choices and life changes through image work: The art of developing personal vision’. London: Unwin Paperbacks.
Hossain, Selina and Masuduzzaman, 2006, ‘Gender Biswakosh (Encyclopedia of Gender, Vol.1)’, Dhaka, Bangladesh, February 2006.
Ruth, Sheila, 1998, ‘Issues on feminism’, Mayfield Publishing Company, 1280 villa street, California, USA.
Rogers, E.M. 1995. ‘Diffusion of Innovations’, Fourth edition. Free Press, New York.
Sen, Amartya, 1999. ‘ Development as Freedom’. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sen, Gita, 1993. Women’s Empowerment and Human Rights: The Challenge to Policy’. Paper presented at the Population Summit of the World’s Scientific Academies.
Sen, Gita and Caren Grown. 1987. ‘Development, Crises, and Alternative Visions: Third World Women’s Perspectives’. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Watt, A. and Rodmell, S, 1988, ‘Community involvement in health promotion: Progress or panacea’? Health Promotion, 2(4), 359-367.
Wolfensberger, W, 1983,’ Social role valorization: A proposed new term for the principle of normalization’. Mental Retardation, 21(6), 235-239.
Documents and Reports
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Census 2012.
Hassan MM. and Alam N, 2005, ‘Survey report on gender relations and rights violation at the household and community levels in rural Bangladesh’. Dhaka: Bangladesh Legal Aid and Services Trust (BLAST), 2005.
Hashemi, Syed M, Sidney Ruth Schuler and Ann P. Riley, 1996. “Rural Credit Programs and Women’s Empowerment in Bangladesh.” World Development 24(4):635-653.
Haque, MD Mahbubul, 2012, ‘Role of Bangladesh women in developing the economy: strategy for future’, Individual Research Paper, National Defense Collage, Mirpur, Dhaka.
Khatun, Dr, Fahmida, Head of Research, Centre for Policy Dialogue, Bangladesh, ‘Development and Empowerment of Women in Bangladesh Society’, Paper presented at NDC on 20 March, 2014.
Kabir, Mrs, Khushi, Coordinator, Nigera Kori, ‘Empowerment as a necessary component for women’s development in Bangladesh’, Paper presented at NDC on 20 March, 2014.
Online / Internet Documents
Abdin, Md, Joynal, 2014, ‘Women empowerment in Bangladesh’, part of country briefing paper of Asian Development Bank, ‘Voices from the Commonwealth: Women in Politics (1999), Published on January 2001, retrieved on 07 February, 2014 from www.joynal.bdrp.com.
Assignment, 2014 ,‘women empowerment in Bangladesh’ . Retrieved on 15 April 2014 from http://www.assignmentpoint.com/arts/political-science/women- empowerment-in-Bangladesh.
International Labor Organization, 1998, <http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/ asro/mdtmanila/training/unit3/cidae mpw.h tm> (accessed on February 2014).
Malhotra, Anju et al, 2002, ‘Measuring women’s empowerment as a variable in international development’, <http://www4.worldbank.org/afr/ssatp/resources/html/ gender- rg/source> (accessed on line, 19 February 2014).
National Women Development Policy (NWDP), 2011, <http://www.scribd.com/ doc/52431073/-Bangladesh> (Accessed on 14 May 2014).
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). 1994. ‘The Women’s Equality and Empowerment Framework’. Available on-line at www.unicef.org/programme/gpp/ policy/empower.html.
Online Journals / Newspapers
Christian Action Research and Education (CARE) 2012, ‘Reaching new heights’, (accessed online, 9 March 2014)
Islam, M. Shadul and Dogra 2011, ‘Women empowerment in Bangladesh: the rise of the other half’, institute of South Asian Studies, (accessed on February 2014).